What Nutrient Deficiency During Pregnancy May Give Rise To A Child With Cretinism?

What nutrient deficiency during pregnancy may result in a child with cretinism?

The most serious consequence of iodine deficiency is cretinism, characterised by profound mental retardation. There is unequivocal evidence that severe iodine deficiency in pregnancy impairs brain development in the child.

Which mineral deficiency during pregnancy causes cretinism?

Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy is a known cause of cretinism and mental retardation. At present, there are limited data on the cognitive deficits of children born to mothers who are moderately iodine deficient in pregnancy.

What lack of element causes cretinism?

Iodine deficiency is well known as cause of cretinism in fetus and newborn, characterized by low birth weight, short stature, mental retardation, deaf, and/or mutism. Iodine deficiency in later period of life causes goiter commonly seen in low iodine intake region.

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What are the effects of iodine deficiency during pregnancy?

Maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy has been associated with increased risks of obstetric complications such as miscarriage, prematurity, stillbirth, and low birth weight in offspring. Maternal iodine deficiency has also been associated with impaired neurodevelopment, including cretinism and lower IQ.

What does lack of calcium cause in pregnancy?

The potential negative consequences of a deficiency in calcium intake during pregnancy may affect bone metabolism, may cause hypertensive disorders or affect the fetal growth. Calcium absorption and urinary calcium excretion are higher during pregnancy than before conception or after delivery.

What does cretinism look like?

Symptoms may include goiter, poor length growth in infants, reduced adult stature, thickened skin, hair loss, enlarged tongue, a protruding abdomen; delayed bone maturation and puberty in children; and mental deterioration, neurological impairment, impeded ovulation, and infertility in adults.

What is the treatment for cretinism?

The main treatment is to give the baby thyroid hormone (levothyroxine). This condition must be treated within the first four weeks after birth or the intellectual disability may be permanent. Thyroid hormone comes in a pill that parents can crush up into their baby’s breast milk, formula, or water.

How can cretinism be prevented?

About one billion people worldwide risk the consequences of iodine deficiency, all of which can be prevented by adequate maternal and infant iodine nutrition. Iodized salt is usually the preferred prophylactic vehicle, but iodized vegetable oil, iodized water, and iodine tablets are also occasionally used.

Which of these groups has higher needs for iron in the general population?

As discussed above, the groups with the highest needs for iron and other micronutrients are usually infants and young children, pregnant women, and women and girls of reproductive age.

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Which hormone deficiency is responsible for cretinism?

Cretinism refers to severe hypothyroidism in an infant or child. This is classically the result of maternal iodine deficiency, and thankfully is increasingly rare.

What are the causes of cretinism?

Primary Cretinism may be caused by:

  • Congenital causes: Thyroid dysgenesis. Thyroid dyshormonogenesis. Ectopic thyroid gland.
  • Acquired causes: Autoimmune diseases. Antibodies pass placenta cause hypothyroidism. Antithyroid medications usage that can cross the placenta. Iodine deficiency. Inability to uptake iodide.

What hormone is Calorigenic?

Thyroid hormones greatly increase the metabolic rate of the body and consequently, enhance heat production (calorigenic effect) and maintain BMR (basal metabolic rate). Thus this option is correct.

When iodine is lacking in the diet during pregnancy the infant may have?

SEVERE IODINE DEFICIENCY: EFFECTS AND PREVENTION Brain development is dependent on adequate thyroid hormone, and severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy may result in maternal and fetal hypothyroidism and serious neurologic and cognitive deficits in children (18).

Why is iodine important in pregnancy?

Iodine helps the body to grow and develop, especially the brain. Because babies get iodine from their mothers, pregnant and breastfeeding women need more iodine. During pregnancy and while breastfeeding, choose foods that are high in iodine and take an iodine tablet every day.

Is it safe to take iodine during pregnancy?

Because iodine is so critical to fetal health, the National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements recommends women get 150 micrograms (mcg) of iodine per day before pregnancy, 220 mcg during pregnancy and 290 mcg while breastfeeding.

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